There is also a lesson to be drawn from the US system of Congressional hearings where top government officials testify on an issue and thus contribute to informed decision making. Having been a part of the Indian negotiating team, he is able to comment on the process from the inside and provides many insights into the US interest in enabling India to participate in international nuclear commerce.
Recounting the experience of some other nations on FBRs, he is pessimistic of Indian success.
However, he fails to adequately explain the compulsions of India in following this route, its advantages in terms of long-term energy security, and the achievements of the Indian nuclear enterprise. While safety concerns deserve top most priority, the addition of the above dimensions would have made the article more balanced. By the end of , India had already concluded nuclear cooperation agreements or Memorandum of Understanding with eight countries, which included the major nuclear powers such as Russia, France, USA, Canada, and Kazakhstan.
Negotiations with the US were underway on the issue of securing the right to reprocess imported fuel as well as over the possibility of import of technology for reprocessing. The nuclear liability legislation that India was required to legislate in order to facilitate private American nuclear companies to build reactors was also near completion.
- Agreements on Nuclear Energy that India has signed with different Countries.
- Important Agreements.
- Politics and Nation?
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Meanwhile, the arrival of nuclear fuel was restoring the lost capacities of the operating nuclear power plants. As the domestic programme moves into fast track expansion, shortage of skilled manpower, technical expertise to take informed decisions on choice of reactors, the ability of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board to quickly, yet with the utmost regard for safety, tackle issues of clearances for new plant designs, plant siting, rehabilitation plans etc will have to be dealt with. In fact, a chapter in the book detailing these and other challenges that the Indian nuclear establishment and industry is likely to face would have gone a long way in preparing the country to handle these in the times ahead.
The final essay by the editor sounds a note of caution on how the future could unfurl. Yet, there is no doubt that the ground covered during the negotiation of the Indo-US nuclear deal would stand the two countries in good stead as they interact on bilateral, regional or international issues of common concern in the future.
The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal | Council on Foreign Relations
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Assessing the U.S.-India Nuclear Deal Ten Years Later: Symbolism and Substance
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Newsletters OpenEdition Newsletter. The civilian nuclear deal has facilitated gains for both sides—for India, it brought a recognition of its nuclear legitimacy while for the United States, it mitigated nuclear proliferation concerns about India while also providing the United States with a counterweight to a rising China. Prior to , Indo-U. Subsequently, India experienced three decades of global nuclear commerce isolation due to sanctions and this prevented any further transfer of dual use technologies to India and more specifically, civilian nuclear equipment technology.
According to Raymond E. Vickery, former U. The conclusion of the deal freed both countries of the baggage of this nuclear past and brought them together to tap strategic and economic synergies. While the shared values of democracy have always existed between the two countries, the utility in expanding the canvas of bilateral cooperation truly played out when the nuclear irritant was removed in and the United States offered India civilian nuclear technology.
Politics and Nation
Even if the direct commercial benefits of the deal are yet to be seen, it helped India achieve an immense strategic and diplomatic gain—an exclusive waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers Group NSG , giving India the opportunity to do nuclear trade with 46 member countries. This was inconceivable many years prior since as a non-Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty NPT member and de-facto nuclear power, India was prohibited to engage in nuclear commerce.
But with this deal, the United States offered such technology to a non-ally like India. Additionally, by getting India to put its civilian nuclear reactors under the IAEA safeguards regime, the deal laid the foundation for India to align its nuclear policy posture further with the U. This can be seen through India becoming party to multilateral nuclear security and safety initiatives such as the Convention of Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material , attending nuclear security summits, and establishing the Global Center for Nuclear Energy Partnership , a center for excellence that facilitates the exchange of nuclear best practices among countries.
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These were direct nuclear nonproliferation gains from the deal for the United States. The United States had perceived significant economic gains from civilian nuclear cooperation with India in the long term, which have yet to pan out. When the deal was freshly concluded, the U. India was trying to negotiate with the United States to establish clear liabilities for the operator as well as vendors in case of a nuclear accident and come up with a nuclear insurance pool that would look after compensation for damage.
However, there is still hope for the U.
India and US Agree to Build 6 US Nuclear Reactors in India
However, the U. Had the nuclear irritant not been removed, would the strategic partnership have blossomed as fully? Thus, to measure the success of the nuclear deal simply in commercial terms may not be wise as it paved the way for some symbolism but a lot of substance in U. Vickery Jr.